|    editor@medjpps.com


Received date : 15-12-2022 Revised date : 03-03-2023 Accepted date : 10-03-2023 Published date : 31-03-2023

Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci 3 (2): 42-49, 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7771364

Original Research

A neuropharmacological profile of lycium schweinfurthii (solanaceae) methanolic extract in mice

Hana A. Bazine, Mohammed A. Shlaka and Fathi M. Sherif

Lycium schweinfurthii is a shrub belonging to the Solanaceae family which widely grows in North Africa and Mediterranean regions. The plant leaves have traditionally been used for gastrointestinal diseases as peptic ulcer in Libya. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Lycium schweinfurthii extract on the central nervous system in mice including anticonvulsant, antidepressant and muscle relaxant activities. The methanolic extract was prepared by fractionation technique. Albino male mice weighing 22 ± 2.0 gm were used and equally divided into equal number and weight for each experiment (n = 6). The best effective pharmacologically dose of 400 mg/kg, i.p. of the methanolic extract was selected to explore the anticonvulsant activity for picrotoxin-induced convulsion in mice (5.0 mg/kg), antidepressant activity of forced swimming test of depression and muscle relaxant action by motor coordination test of hanging wire. Fluoxetine (10.0 mg/kg), imipramine (15.0 mg/kg) and diazepam (5.0 mg/kg) were used as reference compounds. Lycium schweinfurthii extract exhibited a significant prolonged delay in the onset time of induced convulsion and significant decrease in the frequency of convulsion as well as a significant decrease in the duration time of attacks. Pretreatment with flumazenil (2.0 mg/kg) was found to increase the frequency and duration of convulsions without profound change in the onset time produced by Lycium schweinfurthii. For antidepressant activity, the plant leave extract significantly decreased immobility time duration without a muscle relaxant effect. The results suggest that the methanolic extract of Lycium schweinfurthii leave has anticonvulsant and antidepressant-like activities without any muscle relaxant effect in mice. Thus, Lycium schweinfurthii may have a neuropharmacological potential use in human.


1. Jafri SMH, El-Gadi A (1978) The flora of Libya. 1424-1425. Publisher: Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Al- Fateh, Tripoli, Libya, 1985.
2. Yao R, Heinrich M, Weckerle CS (2018) The genus lycium as food and medicine: a botanical, ethnobotanical and historical review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 212: 50-66. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.10.010.
3. Akhlaq M, Alum MK, Alam MM (2022) Anti-inflammatory potential of medicinal plants. Mediterranean Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2 (1): 15 - 23. doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6399381.
4. Ewais, EA, Abd El-maboud MM, Elhaw MH, Haggag MI (2016) Phytochemical studies on lycium schweinfurthii var. schweinfurthii (solanaceae) and isolation of five flavonoids from leaves. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. 4 (6): 288-300.
5. Elbermawi A, Halim AF, Mansour ESS, Ahmad KF, Ashour A, Amen Y, Shimizu K (2021) A new glucoside with a potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity from lycium schweinfurthii. Natural Product Research. 35 (6): 976-983. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1616730.
6. Elbermawi A, Halim AF, Mansour ESS, Ahmad KF, Elsbaey M, Ashour A, Amin Y, El-gamil MM, Tomofumi M, Shimizu K (2022) Lycium schweinfurthii: new secondary metabolites and their cytotoxic activities. Natural Product Research. 36 (22): 5134-5141. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2021.1922902.
7. Bazine HA, Shlaka MA, Mezogi JS, Alghazeer RO, Sherif  FM(2022) Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Lycium schweinfurthii methanolic leaves extract (Solanaceae) in mice. Pharmacy and Pharmacology International Journal. 10 (6): 201-206. doi: 10.15406/ppij.2022.10.00386.
8. Naidu SV, Harsha R, Jyothsnya S (2017) To evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of moringa oleifera (drumstick leaves) in albino mice. International Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 6 (10): 2491. doi: 10.18203/2319-2003.ijbcp20174382.
9. Kulkarni SK, Dhir A (2007) Effect of various classes of antidepressants in behavioral paradigms of despair. Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. 31 (6): 1248-1254. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp. 2007.05.002.
10. Rabiu A, Haque M (2020) Preparation of medicinal plants: basic extraction and fractionation procedures for experimental purposes. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences. 12 (1): 1-10. doi: 10.4103/jpbs. jpbs_175_19.
11. Adebesin IF, Akindele AJ, Adeyemi OO (2015) Evaluation of neuropharmacological effects of aqueous leaf extract of albizia glaberrima (leguminosae) in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 160: 101-108. doi: 10.1016/ j.jep.2014.11.040.
12. Ajayi A, Abimbola C, Atanda M (2013) Phytomedicine hypnotic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects of 1-nitro-2-phenylethane isolated from the essential oil of dennettia tripetala in mice. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 20 (14): 1315-1322. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2013.07.005.
13. Porsolt RD, Bertin A, Jalfre M (1977) Behavioral despair in mice: a primary screening test for antidepressants. Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Therapie. 229 (2): 327-336. PMID: 596982.
14. Kumar D, kumar S (2015) Neuropharmacological activities of abies pindrow aerial parts in mice. Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology. Research and Management. 3 (2): 141-151. doi: 10.15415/jptrm.2015.32011.
15. van Putten M (2019) The use of hanging wire tests to monitor muscle strength and condition over time. Treat-NMD, Neuromuscular Network. SOP (ID) number DMD_M.2.1.004. Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Human Genetics, Leiden, the Netherlands.
16. Fajemiroye JO, Galdino PM, De paula JAM, Rocha FF, Akanmu AM, Vanderlinde FA, Zjawiony JK, Costa EA (2014) Anxiolytic and antidepressant like effects of natural food flavour (e)-methyl isoeugenol. Food and Function. 5 (8): 1819-1828. doi: 10.1039/c4fo00109e.
17. Wolfgang L, Schmidt D (2006) New horizons in the development of antiepileptic drugs: innovative strategies. Epilepsy Research. 69 (30: 183-272. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2006.03.014. 
18. Singh P, Singh D, Goel RK (2014) Phytoflavonoids: antiepileptics for the future. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 6 (8): 51-66.
19. Diniz TC, Silva JC, De Lima-Saraiva SRG, De Almeida-Ribeiro FPR, Pacheco AGM, De Freitas RM, Quintans-Júnior LJ, Quintans JS, Mendes RL, Silva-Almeida JRG (2015) The role of flavonoids on oxidative stress in epilepsy. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2015: 171756. doi: 10.1155/2015/171756. 
20. Szala rycaj J, Zagaja M, Szewczyk A, Andres mach M (2021) Selected flavonoids and their role in the treatment of epilepsy - a review of the latest reports from experimental studies. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis. (81): 151-160. doi: 10.21307/ane 2021 014.
21. Campêlo LML, Lima SGD, Feitosa CM, Freitas RM (2011) Evaluation of central nervous system effects of citrus limon essential oil in mice. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 21 (4): 668-673. doi: 10.1590/s0102-695x2011005000086.
22. Pitsikas N, Tarantilis PA (2020) The gabaa-benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil abolishes the anxiolytic effects of the active constituents of crocus sativus l. crocins in rats. Molecules. 25 (23): 5647. doi: 10.3390/ molecules25235647.
23. Borsini F, Meli A (1988) Is the forced swimming test a suitable model for revealing antidepressant activity?. Psychopharmacology. 94 (2): 147-160. doi: 10.1007/bf00176837.
24. Can A, Dao DT, Arad M, Terrillion CE, Piantadosi SC, Gould TD (2012) The mouse forced swim test. Journal of Visiulized Experiments. (59): e3638. doi: 10.3791/3638.

Citation :

Bazine et al. (2023) A neuropharmacological profile of lycium schweinfurthii (solanaceae) methanolic extract in mice. Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci. 3 (1): 42 - 49. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7771364

Share :