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Received date : 11-02-2022 Revised date : 09-03-2022 Accepted date : 15-03-2022 Published date : 31-03-2022

Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci 2 (1): 65-72, 2022

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6399538

Original Research

Association of COVID-19 severity with vitamin D and blood group

Ariej M. Mustafa, Halla Elshwekh, Afaf Shebani, Marwa Attayeb, Alauldin A. Makhlouf, Omnia Edaali, Hafsa Al-Emam, Nesrein Bendala

Vitamin D is a hormone which plays a vital role in immune response regulation, including the
prevention of inflammation and autoimmunity. Insufficient vitamin D may increase the risk of infection.
Vitamin D deficiency is not the only factor linked to an elevated risk of COVID-19 infection. Recent studies
have discovered a link between SARS-COV-2 infection risk and blood type. This study was aimed to examine
the association of vitamin D and blood groups with the severity of COVID-19. A retrospective study was
conducted on 224 confirmed COVID-19 patients, aged between 18 and 89 years old. Patients were divided
into three groups (asymptomatic, moderate, and severe cases), and serum 25(OH)D concentration and blood
group were analyzed for all the patients. Data of the severe cases were obtained from Souq Althalath Isolation
Center, Tripoli, Libya, while moderate and asymptomatic cases were obtained from Abushusha Polyclinic and
Aldahmani COVID Filtration Center, during 22nd February 2021 and 28th April 2021 and serum 25(OH)D
concentration and blood group were statistically analyzed for all the patients. The percentages of males and
females were found to be 47.3% and 52.7%, respectively. Disease severity was distributed as follows: 12.5%
asymptomatic, 44.6 % moderate and 42.9% severe. Most of the severe cases had vitamin D deficiency
(88.5%). Among the severely ill patients, 39.6% had blood group A and 09.4% had group O, while 22.9%,
and 28.1% had blood group B and AB, respectively. In contrast, among the asymptomatic patients, only 7.1%
had group A and 85.7% had group O. Overall, the difference in the distribution pattern of blood group in the
three severity categories was highly significant (p < 0.001). The prevalence of Rh positivity among
asymptomatic, moderate and severe cases was 78.6%, 76.0%, and 60.4%, respectively. This study concludes
that insufficient vitamin D levels might influence the severity of COVID-19. COVID-19 patients with blood
group A and those who are Rh-positive could be more vulnerable to developing COVID-19 severity.
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