|    editor@medjpps.com


Received date : 11-08-2023 Revised date : 04-09-2023 Accepted date : 08-09-2023 Published date : 30-09-2023

Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci 3 (3): 31-42, 2023

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8329687

Original Research

Effect of Beetroot juice supplementation on the physical and biochemical profiles of induced metabolic syndrome in rat

Jeremiah Munguti, Andrew Makanya, Moses Obimbo, Vincent Kipkorir and Dennis Omondi

Abstract :

Beetroot is vegetable containing phytochemical ingredients with potent antioxidant, hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is key drivers in the pathophysiology of some metabolic syndromes. Its effect on the progress of induced metabolic syndrome has, however, hardly been investigated. Thus, this study aims to determine the effect of beetroot extract on various biophysical components of metabolic syndrome in rat. Following ethical approval, 50 Wister albino rats were used in this study and divided into three groups: Group A: rats were put on a high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet; Group B: rats were put on an HFHF + fresh beetroot extract while group C: rats were the control group and were given a normal diet. The animals’ body weights and fasting blood sugar were taken fortnightly. Five rats from each group were then sacrificed at weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16 and the following parameters were measured: liver volume, fasting lipid profile, hepatic transaminases and blood platelet level. Compared to the HFHF group, beetroot supplementation resulted in a significant attenuation of overall weight gain (56.91% vs. 34.51%; p < 0.001) and absolute liver volume (p < 0.01) but minimal effect on the body-mass normalized liver volume. Over time, the HFHF+B group similarly had a significantly lower time-dependent elevation in fasting blood suger (p < 0.001) and considerably lower triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins, cholesterol, liver enzyme levels (AST and ALT) (p > 0.05). Beetroot supplementation further ameliorated the thrombocytopenia caused by an HFHF. Beetroot juice supplementation attenuated the attendant effects of induced metabolic syndrome which might contribute towards averting the consequential cardiovascular sequel. Thus, lifestyle modification comprising beetroot intake as a dietary supplementation may alleviate metabolic syndrome and may offer a potential non-medical adjunct in the routine management of metabolic syndrome.


1. Alberti KGMM, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, Fruchart JC, James WP, Loria CM, SmithJr SC (2009) Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome. Circulation.120 (16): 1640-1645. doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644
2. Hirode G, Wong RJ (2020) Trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the United States, 2011-2016. JAMA. 323 (24): 2526-2528. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.4501
3. Liang XP, Or CY, Tsoi MF, Cheung CL, Cheung BMY (2021) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2018. European Heart Journal. 42 (S1): ehab724.2420. doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab724.2420
4. Gabbia D, Roverso M, Guido M, Sacchi D, Scaffidi M, Carrara M, Orso G, Russo FP, Floreani A, Bogiallo S, De Martin S (2019) Western diet-induced metabolic alterations affect circulating markers of liver function before the development of steatosis. Nutrients. 11 (7): 1602. doi: 10.3390/nu11071602
5. Marchisello S, Di Pino A, Scicali R, Urbano F, Piro S, Purrello F, Rabuazzo AM (2019) Pathophysiological, molecular and therapeutic issues of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: an overview. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 20 (8): 1948. doi: 10.3390/ijms20081948
6. Van Wormer JJ, Boucher JL, Sidebottom AC, Sillah A, Knickelbine T (2017) Lifestyle changes and prevention of metabolic syndrome in the heart of new Ulm project. Preventive Medicine Reports. 6: 242-245. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.03.018
7. Ochoa M, Val-Laillet D, Lallès JP, Meurice P, Malbert CH (2016) Obesogenic diets have deleterious effects on fat deposits irrespective of the nature of dietary carbohydrates in a Yucatan minipig model. Nutrition Research. 36 (9): 947-954. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.07.003
8. Aliahmadi M, Amiri F, Bahrami LS, Hosseini AF, Abiri B, Vafa M (2021) Effects of raw red beetroot consumption on metabolic markers and cognitive function in type 2 diabetes patients. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders. 20 (1): 673-682. doi: 10.1007/s40200-021-00798-z
9. Capper TE, Houghton D, Stewart CJ, Blain AP, McMahon N, Siervo M, West D (2020) Whole beetroot consumption reduces systolic blood pressure and modulates diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in older participants. NFS Journal. 21: 28-37. doi.org/10.1016/j.nfs.2020.08.001
10. Ohashi T, Nakade Y, Ibusuki M, Kitano R, Yamauchi T, Kimoto S, Inoue T, Kobayashi Y, Sumida Y, Ito K, Nakao H, Umezawa K, Yoneda M (2019) Conophylline inhibits high fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. PLoS ONE. 14 (1): e0210068. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210068
11. García-Berumen CI, Ortiz-Avila O, Vargas-Vargas MA, Del Rosario-Tamayo BA, Guajardo-López C, Saavedra-Molina A, Rodrigguez-Orozec AR, Cortes-Rojo C (2019) The severity of rat liver injury by fructose and high fat depends on the degree of respiratory dysfunction and oxidative stress induced in mitochondria. Lipids in Health and Disease.18 (1): 78. doi: 10.1186/s12944-019-1024-5
12. Macharia FK, Mwangi PW, Yenesew A, Bukachi F, Nyaga NM, Wafula DK (2019) Hepatoprotective effects of Erythrina abyssinica Lam Ex Dc against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Sprague Dawley rats. bioRxiv. 577007. doi.org/10.1101/577007
13. Munguti JK, Obimbo MM, Odula PO, Sibuor OO, Cheruiyot IK (2018) Hypervitaminosis A causes reversible liver volume changes independent of body mass in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus). Austin Journal of Anatomy. 5 (3): id1086
14. Clifford T, Howatson G, West DJ, Stevenson EJ (2015) The potential benefits of red beetroot supplementation in health and disease. Nutrients. 7 (4): 2801-2822. doi: 10.3390/nu7042801
15. Si̇buor W, Gwala F, Munguti̇ J, Obi̇mbo M (2018) Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates iron-overload-induced structural changes in the liver of the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus). Anatomy. 12 (3): 118-123. doi: 10.2399 /ana.18.074
16. Ushiroda C, Naito Y, Takagi T, Uchiyama K, Mizushima K, Higashimura Y, Yasukawa Z, Okubo T, Inoue R, Honda A, Matsuzaki Y, Itoh Y (2019) Green tea polyphenol (epigallocatechin-3-gallate) improves gut dysbiosis and serum bile acids dysregulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition. 65 (1): 34-46. doi: 10.3164/jcbn.18-116
17. Lorizola IM, Furlan CPB, Portovedo M, Milanski M, Botelho PB, Bezerra RMN, Sumere RMN, Rostagno MA, Capitani CD (2018) Beet stalks and leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) protect against high-fat diet-induced oxidative damage in the liver in mice. Nutrients. 10 (7): 872. doi: 10.3390/nu10070872
18. Sun G, Jackson CV, Zimmerman K, Zhang LK, Finnearty CM, Sandusky GE, Zhang G, Peterson RG, Wang Y-X (2019) The FATZO mouse, a next generation model of type 2 diabetes, develops NAFLD and NASH when fed a Western diet supplemented with fructose. BMC Gastroenterology. 19: 41. doi: 10.1186/s12876-019-0958-4.
19. Henkel J, Alfine E, Saín J, Jöhrens K, Weber D, Castro JP, Konig J, Stuhlmann C, Vahrenbrink M, Jonas W, Keinridders A, Pucshel GP (2018) Soybean oil-derived poly-unsaturated fatty acids enhance liver damage in nafld induced by dietary cholesterol. Nutrients. 10 (9): 1326. doi: 10.3390/nu10091326
20. Fouret G, Gaillet S, Lecomte J, Bonafos B, Djohan F, Barea B, Badia E, Coudray C, Feillet-Coudray C (2018) 20-Week follow-up of hepatic steatosis installation and liver mitochondrial structure and activity and their interrelation in rats fed a high-fat-high-fructose diet. The British Journal of Nutrition. 119 (4): 368-380. doi: 10.1017/S0007114517003713
21. Gheibi S, Jeddi S, Carlström M, Gholami H, Ghasemi A (2018) Effects of long-term nitrate supplementation on carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profiles, oxidative stress, and inflammation in male obese type 2 diabetic rats. Nitric Oxide: Biological Chemistry. 75: 27-41. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2018.02.002
22. Wang KW, Xiao BQ, Li BH, Liu YY, Wei ZY, Rao JH, Chen JH (2019) Effects of fat-to-sugar ratio in excess dietary energy on lipid abnormalities: a 7-month prospective feeding study in adult cynomolgus monkeys. Lipids in Health and Disease. 18 (1): 1. doi: 10.1186/s12944-018-0950-y
23. Jensen VS, Hvid H, Damgaard J, Nygaard H, Ingvorsen C, Wulff EM, Lykkesteldt J, Fledelius C (2018) Dietary fat stimulates development of NAFLD more potently than dietary fructose in Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome. 10: 4. doi: 10.1186/s13098-018-0307-8
24. Mu W, Cheng X-f, Liu Y, Lv Q-z, Liu G-l, Zhang J-g, Li X-y (2022) Potential nexus of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: insulin resistance between hepatic and peripheral tissues. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 9: 1566.doi.3389/fphar.2018.01566
25. Chang PY, Hafiz MS, Boesch C (2018) Beetroot juice attenuates glycaemic response in healthy volunteers. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 77 (OCE4): E165. doi: 10.1017/S0029665118001714
26. Clifford T, Constantinou CM, Keane KM, West DJ, Howatson G, Stevenson EJ (2017) The plasma bioavailability of nitrate and betanin from Beta vulgaris rubra in humans. European Journal of Nutrition. 56 (3): 1245-1254. doi: 10.1007/s00394-016-1173-5
27. Klip A, McGraw TE, James DE (2019) Thirty sweet years of GLUT4. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294 (30): 11369-11381. doi: 10.1074/jbc.REV119.008351
28. Assefa ST, Yang EY, Chae SY, Song M, Lee J, Cho MC, Jang S (2020) Alpha glucosidase inhibitory activities of plants with focus on common vegetables. Plants. 9 (1): 2. doi.org/10.3390/plants9010002
29. Dhananjayan I, Kathiroli S, Subramani S, Veerasamy V (2017) Ameliorating effect of betanin, a natural chromoalkaloid by modulating hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities and glycogen content in streptozotocin - nicotinamide induced experimental rats. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 88: 1069-1079. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.146
30. Liu XJ, Duan NN, Liu C, Niu C, Liu XP, Wu J (2018) Characterization of a murine nonalcoholic steatohepatitis model induced by high fat high calorie diet plus fructose and glucose in drinking water. Laboratory Investigation; a Journal Technical Methods and Pathology. 98 (9): 1184-1199. doi: 10.1038/s41374-018-0074-z
31. Jensen T, Abdelmalek MF, Sullivan S, Nadeau KJ, Green M, Roncal C, Nakagawa T, Kuwabaara M, Sato Y, Kang DH, Tolan DR, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Rosen HR, Lanaspa MA, Deihl AM, Johnson RJ (2018) fructose and sugar: a major mediator of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Hepatology. 68 (5): 1063-1075. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.01.019
32. Henkel J, Coleman CD, Schraplau A, Jöhrens K, Weber D, Castro JP, Hugo M, Schulz TJ, Kramer S, Schuramnn A, Puschel GP (2017) Induction of steatohepatitis (nash) with insulin resistance in wild-type b6 mice by a western-type diet containing soybean oil and cholesterol. Molecular Medicine. 23: 70-82. doi: 10.2119/molmed.2016.00203
33. Sclair SN, Little E, Levy C (2015) Current concepts in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology. 6 (8): e109. doi: 10.1038/ctg.2015.33
34. Chen L, Zhu Y, Hu Z, Wu S, Jin C (2021) Beetroot as a functional food with huge health benefits: Antioxidant, antitumor, physical function, and chronic metabolomics activity. Food Science and Nutrition. 9 (11): 6406-6420. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.2577
35. Fang KC, Cheng YL, Su CW, Wang YJ, Lan KH, Huo TI, et al. (2017) Higher platelet counts are associated with metabolic syndrome independent of fatty liver diagnosis. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association. 80 (3): 125-132. doi: 10.1016/j.jcma.2016.07.003
36. Ding Q, Wang F, Guo X, Liang M (2021) The relationship between mean platelet volume and metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A retrospective study. Medicine (Baltimore). 100 (13): e25303. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025303
37. Rodriguez BAT, Johnson AD (2020) Platelet measurements and type 2 diabetes: investigations in two population-based cohorts. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 7: 118. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2020.00118
38. Ozhan H, Aydin M, Yazici M, Yazgan O, Basar C, Gungor A, Onder E (2010) Mean platelet volume in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Platelets. 21 (1): 29-32. doi: 10.3109/09537100903391023
39. Liu F, Zhou H, Cao L, Guo Z, Dong C, Yu L, Wang W, Liu C, Xue Y, Liu X, Xu Y (2018) Risk of reduced platelet counts in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a prospective cohort study. Lipids in Health and Disease. 17 (1): 221. doi: 10.1186/s12944-018-0865-7
40. Lin YY, Hu CT, Sun DS, Lien TS, Chang HH (2019) Thioacetamide-induced liver damage and thrombocytopenia is associated with induction of antiplatelet autoantibody in mice. Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 17497. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-53977-7
41. Dalbeni A, Castelli M, Zoncapè M, Minuz P, Sacerdoti D (2022) Platelets in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 13: 842636. Doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.842636
42. Rivera-Álvarez M, Córdova-Ramírez AC, Elías-De-La-Cruz GD, Murrieta-Álvarez I, León-Peña AA, Cantero-Fortiz Y, Olivares-Gazca J, Ruiz-Delgado GJ, Ruiz-Arguelles GJ (2022) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and thrombocytopenia IV: its association with granulocytopenia. Hematology, Transfusion and Cell Therapy. 44 (4): 491-496. doi.org/10.1016/j.htct.2021.06.004

Citation :

Munguti et al. (2023) Effects of Beetroot juice supplementation on the physical and biochemical profiles of induced metabolic syndrome in rat. Mediterr J Pharm Pharm Sci. 3 (3): 31-42. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8329687

Share :